central dogma modeling activity
Publication History. Note: In our experience, a large portion of students will start to generate codes resembling those shown in Figure 1B, in which the four single shapes represent letters A–D, then a series of two shapes in a row represent letters D–T, followed by using three shapes in a row to represent U–Z. The same genetic information is in all 100 trillion cells of any one person. Procedures/Content: Lecture on central dogma, protein synthesis and transcription Say it with DNA worksheet – each student receives a slip of paper with a DNA code written out . In part 1, students are asked to develop a code that can be used to distribute secret messages. Students are also now primed to learn how nucleotide sequences within genes relate to protein sequence, and ultimately to protein fold and function. © 2020 BetterLesson. Labs and Activities. They must consider how to code for letters of the English alphabet using only four distinct shapes (triangle, star, square, and circle; Figure 1) and consider what other aspects beyond just the English letters might require coding in order to effectively communicate the secret message. What is the relationship between the base sequences of the coding and the noncoding strands? Initially, the teacher may want to briefly explain how to use the two decoders (Figure 3B) and point out the start and stop codons, thus connecting this to part 1, in which students have learned that any code needs to have something indicating a start and a stop point. For example, some activities have involved students using computer animations to manipulate various molecular components and processes (e.g., Marbach-Ad et al., 2008; Rotbain et al., 2008) while others have engaged students in physically modeling the processes under study (e.g., Takemura & Kurabayashi, 2014; Marshall, 2017). Mutation PPT. If the genetic code is altered by mutation, the protein sequence can be affected just like the sequences of our chains were altered in part 3 when the code had mutations. Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models. These cells specialize in different tasks. Students can respond to the following inquiries individually or with a partner in writing and the inquiries can be made during a whole group discussion: 1. We describe an activity sequence that engages high school students directly in modeling the major processes of protein synthesis using the major components of translation. Codons and mutations . Protein Synthesis Lecture. This section also helps students understand the importance of the “reading frame,” which connects directly with questions in part 2 where students have pondered and answered why it is important to find the correct start codon. Schmeets, About epigenetics and the central dogma of molecular biology, Neuropsychoanalysis, 10.1080/15294145.2014.900936, 16, 1, (45-48), (2014). This allows students to realize that there is no way of knowing where the “codon” for one letter stops and the next begins. This is the start to understanding the relationship between genome and proteome, and between genotype and phenotype. Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids. 5. The central dogma is sort of the central idea that explains what you're trying to do in the field. 4. How? To access a great visual representation of this process visit the Learn.Genetics site and study the Central Dogma interactive graphic. Modeling DNA Replication . The sequence allows students to think through core concepts and investigate connections using hands-on tasks and assignments that guide construction of student understanding. It is also designed to help students connect genotype with phenotype and learn how mutations can lead to disease. Thus, if time or resources are limiting, the teacher can premake a few paper chains that can be displayed to the class during the activity (see notes/potential modifications in the description for part 2 of the activity below) and have the students simply write down the chain sequences as they “translate” them. Takemura and Kurabayashi (2014) involved students in a role-playing activity with physical props to teach transcription and translation, while Marshall (2017) engaged undergraduate genetics students in a paper-modeling activity to simulate molecular processes. Say It With DNA worksheet activity Safety: There are no additional safety considerations for this lesson. When used as a whole, this activity sequence ties together several important topics foundational to molecular biology: embedded genes, translation, mutations, and genetics and disease. Students will explore the causes and consequences of three different genetic conditions. Lighting up the central dogma to assign quantitative and predictive meaning to arrows . In the questions associated with this section (see handout packet, p. 4), students review why the codons need to be at least three consecutive shapes, and why start and stop codons are required. How would transcription and translation be affected? Students will be able to explain why altering the reading frame through insertion or deletion mutations will lead to a catastrophic change in the protein sequence. The dogma is a framework for understanding the transfer of sequence information between information-carrying biopolymers, DNA and RNA (both nucleic acids), and protein. As with all models, this model has some limitations. Alternatively, students can just write out the sequence for the chain and the eight different premade chains can be shown to the class during discussion. With appropriate guidance from the teacher or from fellow students, all students seem to figure out what to do fairly quickly. The discovery of catalytic RNA enabled this pair of Nobel laureates to provide evidence that RNA molecules can possess all the properties required of the original biomolecule since RNA has both the ability to simultaneously function as an enzyme and genetic material. After creating the chains, students are asked to reflect on the purpose of the chain identifiers. (B) A common strategy that students first identify is to use different lengths of “codons” for each letter. 8. This is analogous to the promoter regions that aid in RNA polymerase identification of transcription start sites. Practice: Transcription and translation. Thursday (Dec. 1) Quiz - Central Dogma (Chapters 16-17) Eukaryotic Genome Regulation Worksheet Use Prezi, textbook, and vidoes online to help you complete the worksheet HW - Cornell Notes 18.3. Crossref Song-yi Jung, Scott T Willard, Quantitative bioluminescence imaging of transgene expression in intact porcine antral follicles in vitro, Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 10.1186/1477-7827-12-11, 12 , 1, (11), (2014). Publication Date (Web): June 30, 2006. An A and an E? Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. Transcription (DNA → RNA) has been largely ignored in order to focus more directly on translation and key aspects of turning the genetic code into protein. (C) Valid codes should include consistent lengths of unique sequences of three shapes encoding each letter. This also facilitates initial understanding of codon degeneracy, since we end up with 64 distinct codons by using groups of three. The discussion will likely take 20+ minutes to adequately complete, and the teacher may want to give an additional 5 minutes for students to complete their answers to the questions associated with part 2, once the discussion is finished. Procedure for Modeling Protein Synthesis: 1. https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2019.81.3.202, https://www.dropbox.com/s/1byzp7yau99f30s/Intro%20to%20Molecular%20Biology%20activity_final.doc?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/sd656x3n37hmkrx/Intro%20to%20Molecular%20Biology%20activity_final.pdf?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/39vldfxlr2lwjmf/Discussion%20slides.pptx?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/x0z2jc6lw9xmqpq/Discussion%20slides.pdf?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/mxb9nreylanamzp/Guide_to_using_slides.docx?dl=0, Explore Your Local Biodiversity – How School Grounds Evoke Visions of Sustainability. Notes/potential modifications: The code was originally designed so that the sequences of letters, when decoded, spelled out short inspirational messages. The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. There are 3×3=9 conceivable direct transfers of information that can occur between these. Suppose an individual has a nutrient deficiency due to poor diet and is missing a particular amino acid. A student with the promoter card should line up first. In order to achieve the minimum of 20 amino acid options (plus a stop codon), codons must be three nucleotides in length, which immediately results in a jump from 16 codon options (if codons were only two nucleotides in length) to 64 codon options. Week 2. In order to understand the concepts associated with the central dogma of molecular biology (DNA → RNA → protein) and eventually genetics, students first need to understand the relationship between DNA, mRNA, and proteins, and subsequently that between protein function and disease. During this modeling activity, students act out transcription and translation by moving around the classroom with assigned roles as the DNA, mRNA, tRNA, proteins, etc.. Students will use a model to identify the components of DNA and explain how this structure is conserved during replication and across all life forms. The gene transcription site must be identified (identifiers; promoter regions), the translation start site is required (start codon), and then the sequence of codons must be decoded such that the paper chain (peptide chain) is created in the correct sequence from the start to the stop codon. This is a clever way of accomplishing this task, but students should be asked to think about the limitations of this strategy, including how this further limits the code (four shapes are now basically limited to three for the purpose of coding letters), and varying codon length adds a level of complexity that can be slower and more mentally tasking to decode. Students will use the genetic code to build chains with specific sequences based on an embedded code and, in doing so, become comfortable using the genetic code. Marcel G.J. 2. Students will understand why other aspects beyond the letters must be considered, such as where to start, punctuation, etc. Central to their study is the question of how these molecules are produced in a cell. The students then continue working on their codes for an additional 5–10 minutes and, having realized that each codon needs to be a consistent length, eventually discover that the only way to code for all 26 letters of the alphabet is to use three consecutive shapes to code for each letter (Figure 1C). central dogma and recombinant DNA ... Our goal was to develop a manipulative activity using inexpensive but graphic materials. The noncoding strand is used as the template to make the mRNA. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. One strand is the coding strand, and the other is the noncoding strand. Another option is for the teacher to discuss how many groups came up with this type of strategy (putting the strategy on the board) and then discuss strengths and weaknesses with the class. Describe the functions of the promoter and the terminator. Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 . 3. Students will devise a simple code using four shapes to convey complex information. Being forced to actively think through these issues and possible “solutions,” students begin to realize that the codon lengths need to be consistent. Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales. Describe transcription and translation. RNA and protein synthesis review. All rights reserved. The human body is made up of billions of cells. In this section of the activity, students work with possible “mutations” in the code to determine the various potential effects. Codons that have a length of three shapes is the minimum consistent-length codon strategy required to code for the letters of the English alphabet (4^3 = 64) (Figure 2). Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. Comments. They first determine the exact sequence of the polypeptide they want and then create a DNA sequence to produce it. Different cells use the same blueprint in different ways. Teachers should be aware that this results in having an RNA “genome,” since the code (representing the genome) is directly decoded into a chain (representing protein) using a version of the genetic code, thus using uracil instead of thymine. 2006, 106, 8, 3397-3411. Practice: Codons and mutations. Central Dogma, along with the rest of Nerv HQ, was constructed by Gehirn shortly following the Second Impact, inside the Black Moon in Hakone, Japan. Of paper is to be implemented in its entirety, the activity, students are to... Dig and reasoning using Racer ; + functionalities in network diagrams encode developmental functions. Of one or two DNA bases various potential effects packet, with a copy for each student group! Take a more active role in the fold and function student understanding into... Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetic `` traffic signals '' the three conditions ( see below ) DNA. 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