hellenistic greece time period
Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas.  The earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis (c. 200–118), a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage. The Hellenistic Styles. The conquests of Alexander the Great had caused power to shift from the city-states of Greece to the ruling dynasties. This was a very short period in history. Epirus was a northwestern Greek kingdom in the western Balkans ruled by the Molossian Aeacidae dynasty.  He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis (again with remarkable accuracy). Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as modern Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Parthians continued worshipping Greek gods syncretized together with Iranian deities. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. The scholars at the libraries in Alexandria and Pergamon focused on the collection, cataloging, and literary criticism of classical Athenian works and ancient Greek myths. Some coins describe the Armenian kings as "Philhellenes". Preserved examples of ball projectiles range from 4.4 to 78 kg (9.7 to 172.0 lb). Sparta's bid for supremacy was crushed at the Battle of Sellasia (222 BC) by the Achaean league and Macedon, who restored the power of the ephors. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. The Hellenistic Period began following the death of Alexander in 323 B.C., and lasted until 31 B.C., by which time the Romans had almost conquered all the territories under Macedonian rule. The second Diadochi war began following the death of Antipater in 319 BC. This culminated at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC, a crushing Roman victory in the Peloponnese that led to the destruction of Corinth and ushered in the period of Roman Greece. In the Treaty of Apamea which ended the war, Antiochus lost all of his territories in Anatolia west of the Taurus and was forced to pay a large indemnity of 15,000 talents.. The defeat of the Greek cities by Philip and Alexander also taught the Greeks that their city-states could never again be powers in their own right, and that the hegemony of Macedon and its successor states could not be challenged unless the city states united, or at least federated. Learn greece history hellenistic period with free interactive flashcards. The Bosporans had long lasting trade contacts with the Scythian peoples of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, and Hellenistic influence can be seen in the Scythian settlements of the Crimea, such as in the Scythian Neapolis. The Achaeans refused and, feeling that they might as well die fighting, declared war on Rome. The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. To counter the power of Macedon under Cassander, Athens courted alliances with other Hellenistic rulers such as Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and in 307 Antigonus sent his son Demetrius to capture the city. In 198 BC, the Second Macedonian War broke out for obscure reasons, but very likely because Rome saw Macedon as a potential ally of the Seleucids, the greatest power in the east. Non-Greeks also had more freedom to travel and trade throughout the Mediterranean and in this period we can see Egyptian gods such as Serapis, and the Syrian gods Atargatis and Hadad, as well as a Jewish synagogue, all coexisting on the island of Delos alongside classical Greek deities. Ch. Hellenistic refers to Greek language and culture. He and his successors also fought a series of wars with the Seleucids, known as the Syrian wars, over the region of Coele-Syria. In many ways, the Hellenistic period was a hugely cultured age – almost self-consciously so. Architecture. 2. Athens later allied itself to Ptolemaic Egypt to throw off Macedonian rule, eventually setting up a religious cult for the Ptolemaic kings and naming one of the city's phyles in honour of Ptolemy for his aid against Macedon. The Hellenistic Period 1. Antigonus II ruled until his death in 239 BC, and his family retained the Macedonian throne until it was abolished by the Romans in 146 BC.  Thracian kings were among the first to be Hellenized.. The Hellenistic period in Ancient Greece (323–146 BC) was the time period between the death of Alexander the Great when the generals of Alexander created their own empires and the Roman conquest of mainland Greece.. During this era: Greek culture, art and power expanded all over the Eastern Mediterranean (including Anatolia, Egypt, the Levant and the Balkans). Under Antiochus I (c. 324/323 – 261 BC), however, the unwieldy empire was already beginning to shed territories. However, Macedon had a relatively strong and centralized government, and compared to most Greek states, directly controlled a large area. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. Hellenistic Greece is the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek Achaean League heartlands by the Roman Republic. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek rule. Macedon was located at the periphery of the Greek world, and although its royal family claimed Greek descent, the Macedonians themselves were looked down upon as semi-barbaric by the rest of the Greeks.  Known as the "Father of Geography", Eratosthenes also created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians, based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. This ended with a decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC). He then invaded Phoenicia, laid siege to Tyre, stormed Gaza and began building a fleet. At least some Scythians seem to have become Hellenized, because we know of conflicts between the elites of the Scythian kingdom over the adoption of Greek ways. In 198 BC, during the Second Macedonian War Philip was decisively defeated at Cynoscephalae by the Roman proconsul Titus Quinctius Flamininus and Macedon lost all its territories in Greece proper. Mithridates also depicted himself with the anastole hairstyle of Alexander and used the symbolism of Herakles, from whom the Macedonian kings claimed descent. The result was the end of Macedon as a major power in the Mediterranean. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. From the 6th century BC on, the multiethnic people in this region gradually intermixed with each other, creating a Greco-Getic populace. The conventional end of the Hellenistic period is 31 B.C., the date of the Battle of Actium. But in 301 BC a coalition of Cassander and the other Hellenistic kings defeated Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus, ending his challenge. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, the Parthians fought frequently against neighbouring Rome in the Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – AD 217). For his support against the Seleucids in 190 BC, Eumenes II was rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor. In the early 2nd century BC, the Galatians became allies of Antiochus the Great, the last Seleucid king trying to regain suzerainty over Asia Minor. Architecture. A number of the best-known works of Greek sculpture belong to the Hellenistic period, including Laocoön and his Sons, Venus de Milo, and the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Orontid Armenia formally passed to the empire of Alexander the Great following his conquest of Persia. The Thracians and Agrianes were widely used by Alexander as peltasts and light cavalry, forming about one fifth of his army.  Seleucia replaced Babylon as the metropolis of the lower Tigris. Luckily for the Greeks, Flamininus was a moderate man and an admirer of Greek culture. Despite this, it is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. It was not until the reign of Phraates I (c. 176–171 BC), that the Arsacids would again begin to assert their independence.. Greece was a key province of the Roman Empire, and the Roman’s interest in Greek culture helped to circulate Greek art around the empire, especially in Italy, during the Hellenistic period and into the Imperial period of Roman hegemony . Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan Empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). Athens would later also establish a cult for the Pergamene king Attalos I. Antigonus II died in 239 BC. In this political climate, Hellenistic philosophers went in search of goals such as ataraxia (un-disturbedness), autarky (self-sufficiency), and apatheia (freedom from suffering), which would allow them to wrest well-being or eudaimonia out of the most difficult turns of fortune. In Asia, Eumenes was betrayed by his own men after years of campaign and was given up to Antigonus who had him executed. This came to an end when they sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax who tried to defeat Attalus, the ruler of Pergamon (241–197 BC). Eumenes II turned Pergamon into a centre of culture and science by establishing the library of Pergamum which was said to be second only to the library of Alexandria with 200,000 volumes according to Plutarch. Other Scythians on the steppes of Central Asia came into contact with Hellenistic culture through the Greeks of Bactria. He began removing and appointing satraps as if he were king and also raided the royal treasuries in Ecbatana, Persepolis and Susa, making off with 25,000 talents. The west Balkan coast was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes and kingdoms such as the kingdom of the Dalmatae and of the Ardiaei, who often engaged in piracy under Queen Teuta (reigned 231–227 BC). University of California Press. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe, or Berenice. These cities retained traditional Greek city state institutions such as assemblies, councils and elected magistrates, but this was a facade for they were always controlled by the royal Seleucid officials. Apart from these cities, there were also a large number of Seleucid garrisons (choria), military colonies (katoikiai) and Greek villages (komai) which the Seleucids planted throughout the empire to cement their rule.  These cities included newly founded colonies such as Antioch, the other cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, Seleucia (north of Babylon) and Dura-Europos on the Euphrates.  The 18th century terms Baroque and Rococo have sometimes been applied to the art of this complex and individual period. Although Eumenes, satrap of Cappadocia, defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon, Seleucus, and Antigenes (possibly with Ptolemy's aid) during his invasion of Egypt (c. 21 May to 19 June, 320 BC). Greece now lay across Rome's line of communications with the east, and Roman soldiers became a permanent presence. Large numbers of his coins have been found in India, and he seems to have reigned in Gandhara as well as western Punjab. Hinüber (2000), pp. Whatever the case, tensions between pro- and anti-Seleucid Jewish factions led to the 174–135 BC Maccabean Revolt of Judas Maccabeus (whose victory is celebrated in the Jewish festival of Hanukkah).  Hellenistic kings adopted patron deities as protectors of their house and sometimes claimed descent from them. The word Hellenistic is inspired by the word Hellazein, which basically meant to identify with the Greeks. 12 The Hellenistic Period 335 B.C. Hellenism or at least Philhellenism reached most regions on the frontiers of the Hellenistic kingdoms. In 215 BC, however, Philip formed an alliance with Rome's enemy Carthage, which drew Rome directly into Greek affairs for the first time. The degree of influence that Greek culture had throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms was therefore highly localized and based mostly on a few great cities like Alexandria and Antioch.  Antioch was founded as a metropolis and center of Greek learning which retained its status into the era of Christianity. Seleucus' war elephants proved decisive, Antigonus was killed, and Demetrius fled back to Greece to attempt to preserve the remnants of his rule there by recapturing a rebellious Athens. Cities such as Pergamon, Ephesus, Rhodes and Seleucia were also important, and increasing urbanisation of the Eastern Mediterranean was characteristic of the time. Cleopatra, the wife of Tigranes the Great, invited Greeks such as the rhetor Amphicrates and the historian Metrodorus of Scepsis to the Armenian court, and—according to Plutarch—when the Roman general Lucullus seized the Armenian capital, Tigranocerta, he found a troupe of Greek actors who had arrived to perform plays for Tigranes. The identification of local gods with similar Greek deities, a practice termed 'Interpretatio graeca', stimulated the building of Greek-style temples, and Greek culture in the cities meant that buildings such as gymnasia and theaters became common. Octavian, who later became the emperor Augustus, defeated Marc Antony’s fleet and, consequently, ended Ptolemaic rule. Artists such as Peiraikos chose mundane and lower class subjects for his paintings. The major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. The kingdoms of Cappadocia, Bithynia and Pontus were all practically independent by this time as well. Architecture in the Greek world during the Hellenistic period developed theatrical tendencies, as had Hellenistic sculpture. The Achaeans refused and declared war on Rome. Hellenistic monarchs ran their kingdoms as royal estates and most of the heavy tax revenues went into the military and paramilitary forces which preserved their rule from any kind of revolution. Roman taxes were imposed, except in Athens and Sparta, and all the cities had to accept rule by Rome's local allies. Mystery religion - Mystery religion - The Hellenistic period: When Alexander the Great conquered the Asiatic kingdoms as far east as the Indus River, the Greek world was extended immensely. This defeat allowed Pontus to invade and conquer the kingdom. 54-55. Demetrius now turned his attention to Ptolemy, defeating his fleet at the Battle of Salamis and taking control of Cyprus.  At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir, and parts of Pakistan. Hellenistic culture produced seats of learning throughout the Mediterranean. However, this brought Antiochus into conflict with Rhodes and Pergamum, two important Roman allies, and began a 'cold war' between Rome and Antiochus (not helped by the presence of Hannibal at the Seleucid court). Antigonus fled for Greece, and then, together with Antipater and Craterus (the satrap of Cilicia who had been in Greece fighting the Lamian war) invaded Anatolia. Peter Green, on the other hand, writes from the point of view of late-20th-century liberalism, his focus being on individualism, the breakdown of convention, experiments, and a postmodern disillusionment with all institutions and political processes. The era of Hellenistic Art (323-27 BCE) occupied a time-span nearly as long as that of all previous Greek sculpture put together.. The Ptolemaic kingdom was now the city's main ally, supporting it with troops, monies and material in multiple conflicts. : Second Diadochi war. Another poet, Apollonius of Rhodes, attempted to revive the epic for the Hellenistic world with his Argonautica. After being defeated by Ptolemy IV's forces at Raphia (217 BC), Antiochus III led a long campaign to the east to subdue the far eastern breakaway provinces (212–205 BC) including Bactria, Parthia, Ariana, Sogdiana, Gedrosia and Drangiana. In 255 BC, Antigonus defeated the Egyptian fleet at Cos and brought the Aegean islands, except Rhodes, under his rule as well. Forcing the Romans to fight on another front when they were at a nadir of manpower gained Philip the lasting enmity of the Romans—the only real result from the somewhat insubstantial First Macedonian War (215–202 BC). Hellenistic Greece 6-2.2: Analyze the role of Alexander the Great (Hellenistic period), Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Aristotle, and others in the creation and spread of Greek governance, literature, philosophy, the arts, math and science. The Hellenistic period is a time of great development for the artistic invention of mosaics, as well as the prosperity of the Greek people.  Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. Reliefs on the monument also show the Numidians had adopted Greco-Macedonian type armor and shields for their soldiers.. The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated in a civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome. Rome's ally Rhodes gained control of the Aegean islands. Greeks continued being an important part of the cultural world of India for generations. Athens. Hellenistic monarchies were closely associated with the religious life of the kingdoms they ruled. Philip had to surrender his fleet and become a Roman ally, but was otherwise spared. Ariarathes V also waged war with Rome against Aristonicus, a claimant to the throne of Pergamon, and their forces were annihilated in 130 BC. Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban hegemony after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. Carthage was a Phoenician colony on the coast of Tunisia. These federations involved a central government which controlled foreign policy and military affairs, while leaving most of the local governing to the city states, a system termed sympoliteia. (31 B.C. Antigonus then sent his son Demetrius to regain control of Greece. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 117–118. Carthaginian culture came into contact with the Greeks through Punic colonies in Sicily and through their widespread Mediterranean trade network.  Cities and colonies were centers of administrative control and Macedonian power in a newly conquered region. The rebels were supported by Lysimachus, the satrap of Thrace and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt. He kept a core of 500 of them at Apameia. The Parthians used Greek as well as their own Parthian language (though lesser than Greek) as languages of administration and also used Greek drachmas as coinage. Historical Period of Hellenistic Age. The Egyptians begrudgingly accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt, though the kingdom went through several native revolts. Hellenist (Ancient Greek: Ἑλληνιστής, Hellēnistēs), have been attested since ancient times, it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the mid-19th century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus (History of Hellenism), coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. Become 'localized ', adopting local customs as appropriate coast such as Peiraikos chose mundane and class..., except in Athens and Sparta, and culture stronghold of Greek influence until the conquest 30... Era, Theocritus was a moderate man and an admirer of Greek learning which retained its status the. He may have accurately calculated the distance from the 6th century BC the were. 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